Cold forging, also known as cold forming, is a manufacturing process in which metal is shaped and formed into a desired shape or component at room temperature, without the need for heating the metal to a high temperature.
In cold forging, the metal is placed in a die and then a punch is used to apply force and shape the metal. The metal is plastically deformed, meaning that it is permanently reshaped without reaching its melting point, resulting in a stronger and more durable final product. Cold forging is commonly used to create complex metal components with high precision, such as screws, bolts, and other fasteners, as well as more intricate shapes like gears, bearings, and connectors.
Cold forging offers a number of advantages over other manufacturing methods, including higher production efficiency, lower energy consumption, and better material utilization. Additionally, the process can result in improved material properties, including increased strength and durability, and can also help reduce waste and material costs.
There is also warm forging which becomes popular as an metal shaping process. During warm forging, the metal workpiece is heated to a temperature that makes it more malleable and easier to shape, but not so hot that it loses its strength. The heated workpiece is then placed in a die and compressed to a specific shape with the help of a press. The compressive force applied to the metal causes it to flow and take on the shape of the die.
Warm forging is used to produce high-strength, complex-shaped components with minimal material waste. It is commonly used in the production of automotive and aerospace components, such as connecting rods, gears, and turbine blades. Compared to cold forging, warm forging requires less force and allows for greater accuracy and surface finish, while also avoiding the potential cracking that can occur during hot forging.